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Neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders (such as autism spectrum disorder) have broad health implications for children, with no definitive cure for the vast majority of them. However, recently medicinal cannabis has been successfully trialled as a treatment to manage many of the patients' symptoms and improve quality of life. The cannabinoid cannabidiol, in particular, has been reported to be safe and well-tolerated with a plethora of anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties. Lately, the current consensus is that the endocannabinoid system is a crucial factor in neural development and health; research has found evidence that there are a multitude of signalling pathways involving neurotransmitters and the endocannabinoid system by which cannabinoids could potentially exert their therapeutic effects. A better understanding of the cannabinoids' mechanisms of action should lead to improved treatments for neurodevelopmental disorders.

More recently, however, one of 126 identified phytocannabinoids, cannabidiol, has been successfully tested as a treatment for many symptoms and improving the quality of life of patients, due to its anticonvulsant, anxiolytic and anti-inflammatory properties, while cannabidiol is safe and well tolerated.
Recently, it is generally accepted and numerous studies confirm this that the endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a decisive factor in the development of the nervous system and maintenance of its health in the future, ECS components can effectively modulate behavior and mood by interacting with the main neurotransmission and the gut-microbiome-brain axis.
Based on the data currently available, a well-functioning ECS ​​is critical to the health, development and functioning of the nervous system.
Nervous developmental disorders in children have a profound impact on the lives of children themselves and their families. In the United States of America (USA), this is about 15% of children (3–17 years old). This includes diagnoses such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), and syndromic disorders. Neural developmental disorders can include anxiety and mood disorders, Tourette's syndrome, psychosis, and bipolar disorders
The use of atypical antipsychotics is still one of the only treatments for children with autism and escalation, but the side effect profile of antipsychotics is very difficult to control, making them only used as a short-term last resort.
CBD therapy has recently been clinically tested in autism case studies that reported improvements in behavior, anxiety and communication, and in children with ASD, about 60–70% of patients responded well to treatment, with the side effects of sleepiness and loss of appetite being reasonably tolerated. ... (Aran A, Cassuto H, Lubotzky A, Wattad N, Hazan E. Brief report: cannabidiol-rich cannabis in children with autism spectrum disorder and severe behavioral problems — a retrospective feasibility study. J Autism Dev Disord. (2019), Barchel D , Stolar O, De-Haan T, Ziv-Baran T, Saban N, Fuchs DO, et al. Oral cannabidiol use in children with autism spectrum disorder to treat related symptoms and co-morbidities. Front Pharmacol. (2019))
The pooled results from human clinical trials demonstrate a wide range of neurological disorders in which CBD therapy could potentially be effective.
The review shows that there is strong evidence that early cannabidiol treatment has significant potential, not only in cases of persistently resistant epilepsy, but also to safely relieve many of the common symptoms present in children with mental disabilities.
Pharmaceutically purified (isolated) CBD is currently the most promising therapeutic cannabinoid for children due to its safety profile and broad spectrum of activity. A better understanding of CBD metabolism in the human body (especially how it can interact with the gastrointestinal system and microbiota) and mechanisms of action could lead to more optimization of cannabinoid delivery and better development of synthetic cannabinoid analogues.